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Child Psychiatry (Mental Retardation, Autism, Learning Disability, ADHD, Elimination Disorders)

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  MENTAL RETARDATION • Mental Retardation is defined as significantly sub average general intellectual functioning associated with significant deficit or impairment in adaptive functioning , which manifests during the developmental period ( before 18 yrs of age ). • General intellectual functioning is usually assessed on a standardised intelligence test with significantly sub average intelligence as two standard deviations below the mean ( usually an IQ of below 70 ). • Whilst adaptive behaviour is the persons ability to meet responsibilities of social , personal , occupational and interpersonal areas of life , appropriate to age , socio - cultural and educational background. • Adaptive behaviour is measured by clinical interview and standardised assessment scales. • A person with MR must have a deficit in both general intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour. • A classification of mental retardation on the basis of IQ : IQ = Mental age ÷chronological age × 100. Types of Mental

Mood Disorders (Depression , Manic episodes, Bipolar)

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In these disorders, the fundamental disturbance is a change in mood or affect, usually to depression ( with or without associated anxiety ) or to elation. This mood change is normally accompanied by a change in the overall level of activity. Most of these disorders tend to be recurrent, and the onset of individual episodes is often related to stressful events or situations. Classification of Mood Disorder -  1) Manic episode. 2) Depressive episode. 3) Bipolar. 4) Recurrent depressive disorder. 5) Persistent mood disorder ( Cyclothymia , Dysthymia ). 6) Other mood disorder. Depression 1) Depressed mood - sadness of mood, loss of interest in activity. Decrease I & ME : interest, mood, energy. 2) Depressed cognition - sadness of mood leads to three types of depressive ideas :  hopelessness, helplessness, worthlessness ( guilt ). 3) Psychomotor activity -  younger patients ( less than 40 yrs old ) - slow thinking and activity, decrease energy, monotonous voice. Older patients ( more th

NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS (conversion, Dissociative, somatoform disorders)

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  Conversion disorder • Presence of deficits affecting motor or sensory function suggesting a medical or neurological disorder. • Development of symptoms usually in the presence of significant psychological stressor. • Temporal relationship between stressor and development of symptoms. • Patient does not intentionally produce the symptoms. • Detailed physical examination do not reveal any abnormality that can explain the symptoms. • The symptoms may have a symbolic relationship with the stressor. • Sudden onset. Types of disturbance 1) Dissociative motor disorders - motor disturbance involves paralysis or abnormal movements. 2) Dissociative sensory disorders - sensory disturbance involves sensation blindness, deafness, touch, pain. 3) Dissociative convulsions - it is characterised by presence Convulsive movement and partial loss of consciousness. Treatment plans for conversion disorder : Behaviour therapy - aversion therapy, free association. Psychotherapy with abreaction - supportive

ANXIETY DISORDERS (phobia, GAD, OCD)

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  Anxiety- increased arousal accompanied by generalized feelings of fear or apprehension. Anxiety disorders- psychological disorders that take several different forms, but which are all related to a generalized feeling of anxiety. Anxiety - an uneasy, fearful feeling - is the hallmark of many psychological disorders. It is often concealed and reduced by defensive behaviours such as avoidance or ritualistic action. Anxiety disorders are those in which intense, observable anxiety or fear is central to the problem. Among the major anxiety disorders are phobias, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive- compulsive disorder etc. Phobic disorders  Phobic disorder is defined as an irrational fear of a specific object, situation or activity, often leading to persistent avoidance of the feared object, situation or activity.  Features  : 1) presence of the fear of an object, situation, or activity. 2) The fear is out of proportion to the dangerous perceived. 3) Insight is present

Mental Health and Mental Disorder

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MENTAL HEALTH Mental health is the level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness. It is the state of someone who is functioning at a satisfactory level of emotional and behavioral adjustment. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), mental health includes "subjective well-being, perceived self-efficacy, autonomy, competence, inter-generational dependence, and self-actualization of one's intellectual and emotional potential, among others". The WHO further states that the well-being of an individual is encompassed in the realization of their abilities, coping with normal stresses of life, productive work, and contribution to their community. Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. MENTAL HEALTH AND MENTAL D ISORDER Mental health is the successful performance of the

The psychology of abnormal behaviour

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Un derstanding the criteria & causes of abnormal behaviour. What is abnormal behaviour?  Behaviour that deviates from what is expected and normal. ABNORMALITY - Unusual pattern of behaviour, emotion and thought which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder.  The study of abnormal behaviour is called abnormal psychology. Basis of abnormal  behaviour  Antisocial behaviour - Antisocial behaviour is disruptive acts characterised by covert and overt hostility and intentional aggressive towards other. Mental imbalance - Mental imbalance is something that affect your mood,  thinking and behaviour. Poor adjustment - The Abnormal and excessive reaction to an identifiable life stressor. The reaction is more severe than would normally be expected and result in impairment in social, occupational or academic function. Lack of insightful be